Refereed publications from the Lee Laboratory.

Individuals working in the Lee Lab at the time work was done are indicated in bold.


PDFs for many of these publications can also be found under Robert Wingate Lee on ResearchGate <





MacDonald, S. M. and Lee, R.W. (2016) A survey of Polytomella (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) strains in public culture collections. J. Phycol. 52:656-663.



MacDonald, S. M. and Lee, R.W. (2015) Validation of Polytomella piriformis nomen nudum (Chlamydomonadaceae): A distinct lineage within a genus of non-photosynthetic green algae. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 62:840-844.

View PDF.



Smith, D.R., Lee, R.W. (2014) A plastid without a genome: evidence from the nonphotosynthetic green algal genus Polytomella. Plant Physiol. 164:1812-1819. View PDF.


Lee, R.W. and Hua, J. (2014) Mitochondrial Genomes of Green, Red and Glaucophyte Algae. In: Bell E., Bond J., Klinman J., Masters B., Wells R. (Ed.) Molecular Life Sciences: An Encyclopedic Reference: SpringerReference ( Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.  Reference no. 333645  232/232.




Smith, D.R., Hua, J., Archibald, J.M., Lee, R.W. (2013) Palindromic genes in the linear mitochondrial genome of the nonphotosynthetic green alga Polytomella magna. Genome Biol Evol. 5:1661–1667. View PDF.




Smith, D. R., Hua, J., Lee, R.W., Keeling, P.J. (2012) Relative rates of evolution among the three genetic compartments of the   red alga Porphyra differ from those of green plants and do not correlate with genome architecture. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 65:339-344. View PDF.


Hua, J. and Lee, R.W. (2012) Factors affecting codon bias in the mitochondrial genomes of the streptophyte Mesostigma viride and the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J. Euk. Microbiol. 59: 287-289. View PDF.


Hua, J., Smith, D.R., Borza T., and Lee R.W. (2012) Similar relative mutation rates in the three genetic compartments of Mesostigma and Chlamydomonas. Protist 163:105-115. View PDF.




Smith, D.R. and Lee, R.W. (2011) Nucleotide diversity of the colorless green alga Polytomella parva (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta): high for the mitochondrial telomeres, surprisingly low everywhere else. J. Euk. Microbiol. 58:471-473. View PDF.


Smith D.R., Crosby, K., and Lee R.W. (2011) Correlation between nuclear plastid DNA abundance and plastid number supports the limited transfer window hypothesis. Genome Biol. Evol. 3: 365-371. (A commentary by Nick Lane Genome Biol Evol. 2011; 3:372-374 accompanies this article.)  View PDF.




Smith, D.R., Hua, J. and Lee, R.W. (2010) Evolution of linear mitochondrial DNA in three known lineages of Polytomella. Curr. Genet. 56:427-438.  View PDF.


Smith, D.R. and Lee, R.W. (2010) Low nucleotide diversity for the expanded organelle and nuclear genomes of Volvox carteri supports the mutational-hazard hypothesis. Mol. Biol. Evol. 27:2244-2256 View PDF.


Smith, D.R., Lee, R.W., Cushman, J.C., Magnuson, J.K., Tran, D. and Polle, J.E.W. (2010) The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA. BMC Plant Biol. 10:83.  View PDF.




Smith, D.R. (2009) Unparalleled GC content in the plastid DNA of Selaginella. Plant Mol. Biol. 71:627-639.  View PDF.
This work was conducted in the laboratory of R.W. Lee and supported
by his NSERC grant.


Borza, T., Redmond, E.K., Laflamme, M. and Lee R.W. (2009) Mitochondrial DNA in the Oogamochlamys-clade (Chlorophyceae): high GC content and unique genome architecture for green algae. J. Phycol. 45:1323-1334 View PDF.


Smith, D.R. and Lee, R.W. (2009) Nucleotide diversity of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastid genome: addressing the mutational-hazard hypothesis. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9:120 View PDF.


Smith, D.R. and Lee, R.W. (2009) The mitochondrial and plastid genomes of Volvox carteri: bloated molecules rich in repetitive DNA. BMC Genomics 10:132 View PDF.




Smith, D.R. and Lee, R.W. (2008) Nucleotide diversity in the mitochondrial and nuclear compartments of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: investigating the origins of genome architecture. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8:156.  View PDF.


Smith, D.R. and Lee, R.W. (2008) Mitochondrial genome of the colorless green alga Polytomella capuana: a linear molecule with an unprecedented GC content. Mol. Biol. Evol. 25:487-496.  View PDF.




Koziol, A.G., Borza, T., Ishida, K.-I., Keeling, P., Lee, R.W. and D.G. Durnford (2007) Tracing the evolution of the light-harvesting antennae in chlorophyll a/b-containing organisms. Plant Physiol.143:1-15  View PDF.


Popescu, C.E and Lee, R.W.  (2007) Mitochondrial genome sequence evolution in Chlamydomonas. Genetics 175:819-826 
View PDF.




Nedelcu, A.M.1, Borza, T.1, and Lee, R.W. (2006) A Plant-Specific Multigene Family in the Unicellar Mesostigma Argues for Its Close Relationship to Streptophyta. Mol. Biol. Evol. 23:1011-1015.  View PDF.  1These authors contributed equally to this work.


Popescu, C.E.,  Borza, T., Bielawski, J.P. and Lee, R.W. (2006) Evolutionary Rates and Expression Level in Chlamydomonas. Genetics 172:1567-1576  View PDF.


Mallet, M.A. and Lee, R.W. (2006) Identification of three distinct Polytomella lineages based on mitochondrial DNA features. J. Euk. Microbiol. 53: 79-84  View PDF.




Keeling, P.J., Burger, G., Durnford, D.G., Lang, B.F., Lee, R.W., Pearlman, R.E., Roger, A. J. and Gray, M.W. (2005) The tree of eukaryotes. Trends Ecol. Evol. 20: 670-676  View PDF.


Borza, T., Popescu, C.E. and Lee, RW. (2005) Multiple metabolic roles for the nonphotosynthetic plastid of the green alga Prototheca wickerhamii. Euk. Cell 4:253-261  View PDF.




Laflamme, M. and Lee, R.W. (2003) Mitochondrial genome conformation among CW-group chlorophycean algae. J. Phycol. 39, 213-220 (2003).  View PDF. 


Fan, J., Schnare, M.N. and Lee, R.W. (2003) Characterization of fragmented mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs of the colorless green alga Polytomella parva. Nucleic Acids Res. 31: 769-778  View PDF.




Fan, J. and Lee, R.W. (2002) Mitochondrial genome of the colorless green alga Polytomella parva: Two linear DNA molecules with homologous inverted repeat termini. Mol. Biol. Evol. 19:999-1007  View PDF.




Nedelcu, A.M. and Lee, R.W., Lemieux, C., Gray, M.W. and Burger, G. (2000) The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Scenedesmus obliquus reflects an intermediate stage in the evolution of the green algal mitochondrial genome. Genome Res. 10:819-831  View PDF.


1999 and earlier


Nedelcu, A.M. and Lee, R.W. (1998) Modes and tempos of mitochondrial and chloroplast genome evolution in Chlamydomonas: a comparative analysis. In: Rochaix, J.-D., M. Goldschmidt-Clermont and M. Merchant (Eds.), The Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas: chloroplasts and mitochondria, pp. 63-91, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.


 Nedelcu, A.M. and Lee, R.W. (1998) A degenerate group II intron in the intronless mitochondrial genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Evolutionary implications. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15:918-922  


Nedelcu, A.M. and Lee, R.W. (1998) Short repetitive sequences in green algal mitochondrial genomes: Potential roles in mitochondrial genome evolution. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15:690-701 


Nedelcu, A,M (1998) Contrasting mitochondrial genome organizations and sequence affiliations among green algae: Potential factors, mechanisms, and evolutionary scenarios. J. Phycol. 34: 16-28 


Denovan-Wright, E.M., Nedelcu, A.M. and Lee, R.W. (1998) Complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of Chlamydomonas eugametos. Plant Mol. Biol. 36: 285-295


Nedelcu, A.M. (1997) Fragmented and scrambled mitochondrial ribosomal RNA coding regions among green algae: a model for their origin and evolution. Mol. Biol. Evol. 14:506-517 


Bussières, J., Lemieux, C., Lee, R.W., Turmel, M. (1996) Optional mobile genetic elements in the chloroplast DNAs of Chlamydomonas eugametos and C. moewusii: unidirectional gene conversions in high-viability  crosses. Curr. Genet. 30:356-365


Denovan-Wright, E.M., Sankoff, D. Spencer, D.F. and Lee, R.W. (1996) Evolution of fragmented ribosomal RNA genes in Chlamydomonas. J. Mol. Evol. 42:382-391


Nedelcu, A. M., Spencer, D.F., Denovan-Wright, E.M. and Lee, R.W. (1996) Discontinuous mitochondrial and chloroplast large subunit ribosomal RNAs among green algae: phylogenetic implications. J. Phycol. 32:103-111 


Denovan-Wright, E.M. and Lee, R.W. (1995) Evidence that the fragmented ribosomal RNAs of Chlamydomonas mitochondria are associated with ribosomes. FEBS Letters 370:222-226


Denovan-Wright, E..M. and Lee, R.W. (1994) Comparative structure and genomic organization of the discontinuous mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes of Chlamydomonas eugametos and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J. Mol. Biol. 241:298-311 


Denovan-Wright, E.M. and Lee, R.W. (1993) Chlamydomonas eugametos mitochondrial genome. In Genetic Maps, 6th Edition, Book 2, Bacteria, Algae and Protozoa, S.J. O'Brien Ed., Cold Spring Harbor Press 


Denovan-Wright, E.M. and Lee, R.W. (1992) Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes of Chlamydomonas eugametos and Chlamydomonas moewusii. Curr. Genet. 21:197-202 


Lee, R.W., Dumas, C. Lemieux, C. and Turmel, M. (1991) Cloning and characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Chlamydomonas moewusii.  Mol. Gen. Genetics 231:53-58 


Lee, R.W. and Lemieux, C. (1990) Loss of hybrid lethality during backcross programs involving Chlamydomonas eugametos and Chlamydomonas moewusii (Chlorophyceae). J. Phycol. 26, 376-380


Lee, R.W., B. Langille, C. Lemieux and Boer, P.H. (1990) Inheritance of mitochondrial and chloroplast genome markers in backcrosses of Chlamydomonas eugametos X Chlamydomonas moewusii hybrids. Curr. Genet. 17, 73-76  


Lemieux, C. and Lee, R.W. (1987) Non-reciprocal recombination between alleles of the chloroplast 23S rRNA gene in interspecific Chlamydomonas crosses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 4166-4170


Lee, R.W. and Lemieux, C. (1986) Biparental inheritance of non-Mendelian gene markers in Chlamydomonas moewusii.  Genetics 113, 589-600   


Turmel, M., G. Bellemare, R.W. Lee and Lemieux, C. (1986)  A linear DNA molecule of 5.9 kilobase-pairs is highly homologous to the chloroplast DNA in the green alga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Plant Mol. Biol. 6, 313-319 


Vandermeulen, J.H. and Lee, R.W. (1986) Lack of mutagenic activity of crude and refined oil in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  Bull. Env. Cont. Toxicol. 36, 250-253 


Lemieux, C., M. Turmel, R.W. Lee and Bellemare, G. (1985) A 21 kilobase-pair deletion/addition difference in the inverted repeat sequence of Chlamydomonas eugametos and C. moewusii chloroplast DNA.  Plant Mol. Biol. 5, 77-84          


Boer, P.H., L. Bonen, R.W. Lee and Gray, M.W. (1985)  Genes for respiratory chain proteins and ribosomal RNAs are present on a 16 kbp DNA species from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 3340-3344  


Lemieux, C., M. Turmel, V. Seligy and Lee, R.W. (l985) The large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase  is encoded in the inverted repeat sequence of the Chlamydomonas eugametos chloroplast genome.  Curr.Genet. 9, 139-145


Lemieux, C., M. Turmel, V. Seligy and Lee, R.W. (1984) A genetical approach to the physical mapping of chloroplast genes in Chlamydomonas. Can. J. Biochem.Cell Biol. 62, 225-229


Lemieux, C., M. Turmel, V. Seligy and Lee, R.W. (1984) Chloroplast DNA  recombination in interspecific hybrids of Chlamydomonas: Linkage between a nonMendelian locus for streptomycin resistance and restriction fragments coding for 16S rRNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 1164-1168


Lemieux, C., M. Turmel and Lee, R.W. (1981) Physical evidence for recombination of chloroplast DNA in hybrid progeny of Chlamydomonas eugametos and C. moewusii.  Curr. Genet. 3, 97-103   


Lemieux, C., M. Turmel and Lee, R.W. (1982) Physical evidence for recombination of chloroplast DNA in hybrid progeny of Chlamydomonas eugametos and   C. moewusii. Rosowski, J.R., Parker, B.C. (eds.), Selected Papers in Phycology II. Allen Press       


Turmel, M, C. Lemieux and Lee, R.W. (1981) Dispersive labelling of Chlamydomonas  chloroplast DNA in 15N-14N density transfer experiments. Curr. Genet. 4, 91-97 


Lemieux, C., M. Turmel and Lee, R.W. (1980) Characterization of chloroplast DNA in Chlamydomonas eugametos and C. moewusii and its inheritance in hybrid progeny.  Curr. Genet. 2, 139-147 


Turmel, M., C. Lemieux and R.W. Lee (1980) Net synthesis of chloroplast DNA throughout the synchronized cell-cycle of Chlamydomonas.  Curr. Genet. 2, 229-232 


Lee, R.W. and Haughn, G.W. (1980) Induction and segregation of chloroplast mutations in vegetative cell cultures of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genetics 96,79-94 


Lee, R.W. and Sapp, J.A. (1978)  Nuclear mutation increases streptomycin and spectinomycin sensitivity in Chlamydomonas. Genetics 88, 643-650 (1978).


Whiteway, M.S. and Lee, R.W. (1977)  Chloroplast DNA content increases with nuclear ploidy in ChlamydomonasMol. Gen. Genetics 157, 11-15 


Lee, R.W. and Jones, R.F. (1976) Lethal and mutagenic effects of nitrosoguanidine on synchronized Chlamydomonas.  Mol. Gen. Genetics 147, 283-289 


Hawks, B.G. and Lee, R.W. (1976) Methyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of synchronized ChlamydomonasMutation Res. 37, 222-228  


Gillham, N.W., J.E. Boynton and Lee, R.W. (1974) Segregation and recombination of non-Mendelian genes in ChlamydomonasGenetics 78, 439-457  


Lee, R.W. and Jones, R.F. (1973) Induction of Mendelian and non-Mendelian streptomycin resistant mutants during the synchronous cell cycle of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mol. Gen. Genet.121, 99-108 


Lee, R.W., N.W. Gillham, K.P. Van Winkle and Boynton, J.E. (1973) Preferential recovery of uniparental streptomycin resistant mutants from diploid Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Molec. Gen. Genetics 121, 109-116 


Yentsch, C.S. and Lee, R.W. (1966) A study of photosynthetic light reactions and a new interpretation of sun and shade phytoplankton. J. of Marine Res. 24, 319-337 


Wilce, R.T. and Lee, R.W. (1964) Lomentaria clavellosa in North America. Botanica Marina VI, 251-258